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The journey begins..........

I came to 420 Magazine on a fit of whimsy. My husband was dying and I wanted to keep him high until the end. Since I was going to grow, why not do a grow journal? My only intent was to document the grow for my own record. After all, who cared what a 61-year old woman from the banks of the Monongahela had to say? :laugh2: I'm still adjusting to having become SweetSue. Lol!

Well, my husband died the following year. Right at the end I discovered Concentrated Cannabis Oil (CCO). Of course, too late to be of any use to my beloved. The frustration of realizing the high price we'd paid for prohibition lit a fire that apparently is unquenchible. I'm driven to learn everything I can about how disease gets a foothold in our bodies and how we can use CCO to tip the scales in our favor and then to help us maintain the state of homeostasis we were evolved to experience. I switched my grow focus from strongly recreational to strongly medicinal. I'm making oil for my own use. Although I'm a healthy woman who takes no medication other than cannabis, I realize the benefit my own body can gain from including CCO in my life. I also accept that I'll be helping others in their own quest to make and administer CCO for healing and I can't very well do that without practical experience, can I?

This is no easy path, but I know we can make it fun. I study like a fiend, and this thread is my new study hall. It's my hope that some of you will decide to join me on my quest to not only master understanding of the diverse fields of knowledge I'm jumping into, but to help me break it down into simple terms and possibly illustrate it, so that what we end up with is a genuine resource that can help calm the desperation of a member looking for hope.

In the end we can take the mish-mash of what we developed and put it all together in an orderly fashion. Do our own handbook on achieving homeostasis using CCO. How's that sound?

I have this habit of wanting it all. :4: I'm not certain what we'll end up with here, but I'm excited about the possibilities. I've broken it down into simple categories and I'm beginning with questions I personally want answers to. Some of this I already know, so it's a matter of composing the right answer and making it look like something you want to read. I have a concern that we have many members who learn more visually, so that has to be taken into consideration with anything we put together. I'm not interested in working in any particular order. My brain works more fluidly than that. I'll accept the responsibility of keeping track of what gets developed. My hope in putting this out there is that some of you will have an interest spark in one subject and find yourself compelled to master it so you can explain it to us. This doesn't have to be all SweetSue developed material. I have no ego. Please, contribute.

This is a community project, if you'll join me. I have no care for any credit. I have a great desire to continue developing materials that explain all this in simple terms. That's my only purpose in being here. Anybody game?

This is long-term work. I'm not expecting this to fly. We have lives that are worth being a part of and this search will plod along. I may study hard, but I play hard too. :laugh2: Balance in all things. I want to be certain at every step that we got it right. There's a focus on cancer here because the cancer-killing potential of phytocannabinoids demands it. That does not mean we're limited to discussing using CCO to treat cancer. I'm also associated with cajuncelt's cancer protocol thread and I'm working on some materials for him as well. I figured toss it all out there, see what sticks.

My starting questions. If anyone has some they'd like to add let me know within the next 420 minutes and I can edit them in.

A Rudimentary Understanding of Cellular Biology and Cancer Progression
- What's the life cycle of a healthy cell?
- How does programmed cell death happen?
- What's the difference between apoptosis (cellular suicide) and necrosis (cellular death)?
- What changes occur when a cell becomes cancerous?
- What are the stages of cancer?
- What's this about Demethylation?

Your Endocannabinoid System and Homeostasis
- What's the job of the Endocannabinoid System?
- How do receptors work?
- How can I assist my Endocannabinoid System?

How Cannabinoids Kill Cancer Cells
- apoptopic (apoptosis; cell seeks its own death)
- antiangiogenesis (keeps cell from growing new blood vessels)
- antiproliferative (keeps cells from reproducing)
- antimetastatic (cell can't spread seed)
- How does THC kill cancer cells?
- What special cancer-killing properties does CBD have?

The Phytocannabinoids : Your Reserve Soldiers
- description of individual cannabinoids and terpenes)

Concentrated Cannabis Oil (CCO): The Great Equalizer
- Can I get stronger medicine if I use the whole plant?
- What's the easiest way I can find to make good-quality oil in my kitchen?
- What equipment changes will I need to make for producing a larger batch?
- Is there any way to reclaim at least some of the solvent?
- Can we get a decent hand on the truth and science behind decarboxylation?
- What technique gives me the highest THC numbers? CBD numbers?
- Which approach gives me the most monoterpenes?

Supercharging The Oil: The Science of Bioavailibility
- Don't the cannabinoids just get in there and go to work killing diseased cells?
- How can I use the science behind liposomal encapsulation to my advantage?
- What's a carrier oil?
- Why are phenolic oils so important?
- What difference does the choice of carrier oil make?
- What's a Bio Bomb?
- How does Competitive Inhibition work?
- How do I incorporate Competitive Inhibition into the protocol?

Strains and Ratios: Customizing Your Medication
- Does it really make a difference which strains I choose?
- How does synergy come into play when I'm mixing the strains?
- What are recommended ratios for oil production?
- How would I work out using whole plant and mixing strains?

Dosing Protocols and Delivery Systems: Proceed With Care
- What are the pathways into the system and how effective are they?
- What do we mean by "First Pass"?
- What's "herxing"
- What's the difference between optimal dose and therapeutic dose?
- How would I determine a therapeutic dose?
- What level dose is a good starting point?
- How do you make a metered dose?
- How often should I be dosing?
- Explain "Start Low and Go Slow".

Resources For Patients: Boots On The Ground
- What patient support organizations exist?
- What kind of support system should I pull together?

Complementary Therapies
- What are some other holistic ways I can help my body gain homeostasis?
- How can breath training benefit me?
- What are some practical ways to stay positive?

Reading and Resource Lists

Random Notes


I anticipate discussion and debate on occasion. My expectation is that the vision, the desire, the sheer joy we derive from the search for understanding will keep those debates civil. :welcome: Make yourselves comfortable.


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What's the job of the Endocannabinoid System?

The Endocannabinoid System: A quick overview

Your body is equipped with a marvelous communications system whose chief function is to foster an atmosphere of homeostasis, that state when the internal climate from skin to core is in perfect balance, regardless of what's going on outside the protective shell of skin. A body in homeostasis has no place for disease.

This communications system is your Endocannabinoid System (ECS). Endo, a prefix from Greek ἔνδον endon meaning "within, inner, absorbing, or containing", cannabanoid for the plant that led to the discovery of this system that reaches every part of your body, the brain, organs, connective tissues, glands, and immune cells. You'll find endocannabinoids and their receptors everywhere you look. The ECS is a bridge between mind and body, an insightful thought that explains why a reduced stress level and positive mindset can influence healing and health maintenance.

It's believed that cannabanoid receptors, found in the cell membranes, are the predominant cell receptors in the body. Their stimulation causes a variety of physiological changes. The sheer number of cannabanoid receptors throughout the body points to the importance of the ECS. We're still in the infancy stage of understanding the ECS, hobbled almost planet wide by an antiquated and frustrating climate of prohibition that drastically restricts research, but there are some important things we've learned.

Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified:
* CB1 receptors are mostly found in the nervous system, connective tissues, gonads, glands and organs.

* CB2 receptors are mostly found in the immune system, which includes the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes, thymus and leukocytes.

Many cells have both types of receptors, charged with different responses. There's scientific speculation of a third receptor and in time there may be others found.

* Endocannabinoids are created by your own body to stimulate these abundant receptors. The two best known molecules are anandamide and 2-arachidonoyglycerol (2-AG). The body synthesizes them on demand right where the need arises. They have a short half-life before specialized enzymes begin to degrade them.

* Phytocannabinoids are plant-produced cannabanoids that mirror the action of the body's own cannabanoids. Herein lies the magic of Concentrated Cannabis Oil (CCO). You have the potential to dramatically increase the presence of cannabanoids when your body can't produce enough due to stress or disease. The phytocannabinoids most of us are familiar with are Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN). More cannabanoids are being discovered in cannabis all the time, and they work synergistically, meaning they team up to create better health with less side effects than if you used them individually.

This was a simplistic explanation of the ECS. There are increasing resources available for further investigation, if you're so inclined. Simply Google Endocannabinoid System and begin your in-depth study. Numerous YouTube videos exist to explain this important system working overtime to keep you healthy. Seek them out at your leisure. As this blog evolves we'll be exploring the ECS in more depth, particularly as to how CCO enhances the system and how you can further enhance your own ECS through other means. Overcoming disease is a multi-disciplinary adventure.


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What's this about Demethylation?

Thoughts on Demethylation and the Methylation Cycle

"If the body is made up of bricks, then methylation is the laying of each individual brick. " - Patrick Quillin

Please keep in mind this is the most basic explanation for the wonderfully complex methylation cycle. Also, remember that aberrant methylation is caused by something, but that trigger may be impossible to determine, since it could be something environmental, something you ate when you were 12 or keep eating despite knowing better or even something as tragic as being isolated from your mother during the first week of your life. You are an incredibly complex and beautiful biological machine.

Your body is a constant cacophony of chemical reactions. We tend to think of them in isolated events, but the closer analogy would be buckets full of molecules awaiting movement and activity as assigned by the attending enzymes. An integral part of this activity is the passing of methyl groups, a carbon molecule bonded to three hydrogen molecules. These are akin to work orders for the enzymes, directing the expression or silencing of the gene to affect the change required to keep everything stable in this corner of the body/world.

Methylation is the exchange of the methyl groups so necessary for the chemical reactions that make you who you are. Methylation is what determines gene expression and protein function. It's what determines how you feel, think, see, look, are.

It turns out there's a quirk that seems to occur in the methylation cycle that's a precursor to cancer and continues as cancer grows. A genetic mutation causes an imbalance of proteins that causes an imbalance in the methylation cycle and the genes that regulate the cannabinoid receptors are overwhelmed by swarms of methyl groups, effectively silencing them. We call this hypermethylation. If the genes regulating the receptors are being silenced they can't communicate with the receptors, the cannabinoids can't attach and the work of eliminating that cancer cell can't take place. Instead, the cancer cell grows and replicates. The tumor advances.

The challenge then becomes getting these receptors cleaned so that the cannabinoids you worked so hard to acquire will have the best chance of helping your body return to health by eliminating the cancer cells. There are some surprisingly easy and tasty ways to do this.

* green tea: Not only good for demethylation but also an excellent antioxidant. We should all be drinking green tea, IMHO. My preference has become a mix of green tea and ginger tea with lemon, infused with probiotics. Multi-functional food. How like a multi-tasking woman. :laugh2:

* mangoes: Always best fresh, of course, but there're juices on the market worth looking at and in a pinch, baby food lines have started to include mangoes in their pureed fruit bags. I get excited when I find myself at the grocery as they decide to chop up some mangoes that are too ripe to leave on the stands any longer. Perfectly ripe and already chopped up.

My habit has become 4 oz of mango juice 30-40 minutes before dosing. I find juice so much easier to deal with in my own life. Unless I found chopped mango at the grocery. Sweet!

* green apples: Recent findings indicate that DNA demethylation is mediated by Tet (ten eleven translocation) enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). Sorry, sometimes technical is called for. It took me days to understand that sentence. :laugh2: I'm happy to say, I now understand it and so much more.

I have no idea, nor have I been able to find an explaination for why the green apples. Care to share Cajun?

It's been determined that vitamin C, which can be found in fruits such as apples and oranges, induces Tet-dependent DNA demethylation in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells when present in cell culture media.

Yes, it's animal research but we are, after all, animals ourselves, so a certain amount of extrapolation can be safely applied. "An apple a day" makes much more sense now, doesn't it?

In 2007 a group of researchers discovered that the polyphenols in Annurca apples (a variety from southern Italy) have astounding demethylation properties. They aren't green apples, but if you can get them, I'd certainly add them in some way. I hear they're absolutely delicious.

* grapefruit juice: Be cautious if you're on certain cardiac meds that disallow grapefruit. There're other options.

* cinnamon: Take 1/8 tsp a day. It goes down easy with almond milk. I like it mixed with honey, but I've a notorious sweet tooth.

* dark chocolate (90%): To the uninitiated this tastes nasty the first time, but give your palate a chance to adjust to the difference. After the initial shock to the chocoholic in me this has become my favorite choice of chocolates. At least 1 oz a day. Doesn't that just make you happy? :laugh2:

* olive oil: I have no idea how much, but it's a sure bet that a tablespoon a day wouldn't hurt. Use it in cooking. Use it a lot. Dip bread into it for a quick snack. Infuse it with cannabis and make it even better for you. :4:

In an interview with Project CBD, Mauro Maccarone, a scientist at the University of Teramo, Italy shared these thoughts:

Maccarone hypothesized that olive oil might counter some of the adverse effects of methylation.

“We found that olive oil, in particular the phenolic components of olive oil, can reactivate CB-1 expression. By adding olive oil to an animal’s diet, we can restore a normal CB-1 receptor level that will protect cells against cancer,” Maccarone explained.

“This is very interesting and very promising because it suggests that the normal daily impact of the right amount of olive oil could be protective and could give you a better chance of a healthy life.”


There you have it. A quick list of simple things you can add to your diet every day to help your body heal and make better use of this oil that feels like gold every time you look at it.

We work hard to grow the right strains, harvest and cure with loving care. We take great steps to insure that the oil we produce is clean and potent to our needs. It only makes sense to do all we can to help our bodies get the greatest number of cannabinoids working on our behalf. I hope this helps.

Go have some green tea. :love:


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What do we mean by "First Pass"?



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How can I incorporate Competitive Inhibition into the protocol?

This is nothing more than a rewrite of Cajun's second post on his cancer protocol thread. Here's the link to that if you'd care to check it out.

A Base Treatment Regimen for Cancer


This piece was written for cancer patients healing themselves with Concentrated Cannabis Oil. Those of us who smoke or vape or ingest recreationally don't tend to think of it as medicating ourselves, but the reality is you're doing just that. Your Endocannabinoid System takes those additional cannabinoids and heals your system too, you just weren't aware of it. These methods will increase the level of your buzz and get more working cannabinoids into your healing body.

Remember, it's a numbers game. You worked hard to produce oil loaded with numbers of cannabinoids, terpenes and other beneficial molecules. Now your challenge becomes getting the greatest number of those fighters into the system without being degraded, metabolized or eliminated. We want them active in the business of destroying cancer cells and assisting the immune system, and we want them there as long as possible before they get washed out.

Let's look at the practical steps you can take to help your body get the greatest benefit from your priceless medication. How can we increase bioavailability?

We've already covered demethylation, so you're already doing things like drinking lots of green tea, eating dark, dark chocolate, cinnamon, mangoes, etc. right? Good. It enhances your bioavailability. Cajun also recently shared that "other supplements like garlic, tumeric, vitamin D3, selenium, and especially fish-based Omega 3's, melatonin, ect. all contribute to the cco by synergy at least 50 fold."

Now it's time to dose.

Begin by eating about 30-40 minutes before you dose. Your main focus here is to get the liver occupied so that when you dose it's busy with the previous "meal" and more cannabinoids will slip by unmolested. Since the liver is the organ responsible for processing oils, a good option is a tablespoon full of coconut oil, which is easily absorbed by the small intestines and transported to the liver. You give the liver busy work and get the fabulous nutritional benefits of coconut oil all at once. Win/win.

**A cautionary note** Coconut oil is contraindicated as a prep for treating liver cancer. You want the coconut oil you introduce to have cannabinoids with it and you want them to get straight to the liver, so the coconut oil you use is the carrier oil for the CCO. With liver cancer the use of supplements is necessary to creatively inhibit the liver.

The enzymes in the liver that metabolize most of the THC are aggressive by nature, and it behooves you to get them busy before dosing and keep them busy as you dose. As it turns out, there are some plant molecules, apigenin and amentoflavone, that attract those very same enzymes, known as CYP2C9. So you're increasing your odds by flooding the field with distractions.

Aside from being "busy work" for the enzymes, apigenin and amentoflavone offer some interesting benefits. I found twenty different anti-cancer effects of apigenin alone, among them the ability to inhibit angiogenesis (growing new blood vessels so the cell can continue to live) and to promote cell apoptosis (suicide) and that wasn't an all-inclusive list. Cajun shared that his oncologist recommended he take 1.5 grams of apigenin daily. He admits to taking about 500 mg a day because he just got sick of the number of pills. I can certainly understand that.

You can get apigenin from food sources, (Ginko Biloba, for one) but at the recommended levels I think a source for tablets might be necessary. It's easy to find. You're treating cancer. Big guns are called for.

Amentoflavone has been used for centuries in Chinese medicine as an anti-cancer medication. I browsed through an interesting Chinese study of the anti-cancer mechanisms of amentoflavone in the destruction of typical breast cancer MCF-7 cells. To be blunt, the amentoflavone degraded the integrity of the mitochondrial wall until it shredded and the tumor cell died. Interestingly enough, this was one of the mechanisms used by cannabinoids to cause cell death. Fascinating. Amentoflavone has been used in traditional medicine as an antioxidant, vasorelaxant, anti-HIV and anti-angiogenesis agent. Again, not an inclusive list of the potential benefits.

Amentoflavone is also available as a supplement. One commonly used by weight lifters is Amentomax.

As Cajun so succinctly put it:

"These molecules, as well as having additional benefits, will give the enzymes "busy work" allowing the cannabinoids greater opportunity to circulate, connect with and destroy mutated cells both in the liver and throughout the body"

The Plan: 30-40 minutes before you dose

- a tablespoon of coconut oil (unless you're treating liver cancer)
- 80mg of apigenin
- 200mg of amentoflavone
- a cup of mango.

Now you're prepped for action. Have another cup of green tea. :green_heart:


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Happy Easter everyone :love:

Great start, thank you.

So good to see you here Mighty Mouse. :5:

Anything with Susan's name on it there sure to be a bird that follows.


:laugh2: There you are my favorite Bird Man. :love::5::love:

This is going to be a great info thread! Thanks Sue for you hard work and dedication to this. HAPPY EASTER!!

Welcome Hydro. I live for this type of work. To be offered the opportunity to put this together just lit my creative juices right up. Good to have you along.


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Good morning Sue,

Just checking in.

Good morning Canyon. Welcome. :love: I'm really glad to see you here. You frequently cause me to see things from a different perspective. This is a project that'll benefit from that.


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To clarify

There's no particular order that this needs to be approached. The orderly nature comes into play when we feel we've answered enough questions with enough clarity that we're ready to compline it into a cleaner format.

I mention this again because, if you have a pressing need to understand something on that list, or something not yet on that list we can certainly fast-track it for you. I'm trying to keep it related to CCO as much as possible.


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The Phytocannabinoids: Your Reserve Soldiers

Pharmacological actions of non-psychotropic cannabinoids (with the indication of the proposed mechanisms of action)



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What are the pathways into the system and how effective are they?

This is from a white paper at Green House Labs.

So what happens in your body when you take cannabis or cannabinoids?

This primarily depends on which cannabinoids were taken and how they were taken/the route of administration.

Route of administration

Cannabis or cannabinoids are often smoked but can also be ingested (oil, cake, tea etc.), injected or absorbed through the skin (patch) or mucous membranes (tongue, cheek, rectum). The chosen route of administration has a major impact on the actual effect.

For instance, smoking inevitably heats up cannabinoids causing decarboxylation and a shift from acidic to neutral compounds, which tend to be more biologically active. In addition, the incineration process will render part of the cannabinoids biologically inactive.

However, inhaled cannabinoids enter the bloodstream through the lungs and therefore reach the rest of the body before it passes the liver. This first-pass liver effect can seriously reduce the amount of available cannabinoids. Similarly, ingesting cannabinoids can reduce the amount of available cannabinoids through degradation in the gut/digestive tract.

Heat, chemical degradation or biological degradation/metabolism can dramatically change the amount of cannabinoids that is biologically active: bioavailability. Injected substances are considered 100% bioavailable. Any reduction is ascribed to the route of administration.

Smoked, or inhaled cannabinoids have reported bioavailabilities ranging from 2-56%(Huestis, 2007) with an average of about 30% (McGilveray, 2005). This variability is mainly due to differences in smoking dynamics (how deeply does one inhale, how long does one hold it in). Compared to oral application, the effects of smoking cannabinoids are relatively fast in on- and offset.

Cannabinoids that are absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth (buccomucosal application) have bioavailabilities of around 13% (Karschner et al., 2011). Application via the mucous membranes of tongue and cheek or rectal application bypasses degradation in the gut and improves bioavailability.


Cannabinoids (and their metabolites/breakdown products) are very lipophilic and are preferentially distributed to fatty tissues such as brain, spleen and body fat rather than aquaeous/water-rich tissues such as blood.

Distribution of THC (other cannabinoids will have similar but not identical distributions based on their respective biochemical properties):

About 1% of biologically available THC reaches the brain.

THC (and metabolites) accumulates in testicular/epididymal fat where it may affect sperm production.

THC crosses the placenta far more efficiently than its metabolites. From 15% (late pregnancy) to 30% (early pregnancy) of maternal plasma THC can be detected in fetal plasma.

THC also accumulates in breast milk (levels 8.4 times higher than plasma). About 10% of maternally consumed THC can be passed on to breast milk.

THC levels peak around 10 minutes after onset of smoking and rapidly go down to ~ 60% of peak after 15 minutes, 20% of peak after 30 minutes and 3% of peak after 2 hours.

THC is degraded to 11-OH-THC, which is also psychoactive, and subsequently to THC-COOH which is not psychoactive. THC-COOH is relatively stabile and can remain detectable for weeks (and is therefore used for drug screening). Most cannabinoid metabolites are excreted with urine (~1/3) or feces (~2/3).

The image below shows the distribution of CB1 receptor ligand 18F-FMPEP after injection into the blood circulation (this distribution can be expected to be similar but not identical to that of THC).


CB1 can be detected in human tissues throughout development (Mato et al., 2003). Comparison of CB1 distribution in the human brain at difference developmental stages shows:
-CB1 expression is relatively low in fetuses, intermediate in children and high in adults.
-CB1 expression in adults is particularly high in hippocampus and basal ganglia.
-CB1 expression in fetuses is particularly high in capsula interna, pyramidal tract and brachium conjunctivum (while not detectable in children and adults) suggesting a transient surge of CB1 in developing neuronal fiber tracts and thus a role in brain development.

Example by numbers

Now let's breakdown what happens when you smoke a cannabis cigarette (adapted from (McGilveray, 2005)).

A cigarette containing 35 mg THC produces peak THC levels of 162 ng/ml plasma 10 minutes after onset of smoking.

An average human has approximately 5l of blood meaning that 162 x 5000 = 810 μg of THC is bioavailable at peak levels, corresponding to bioavailability of 0.81/35 = 2.4% at peak levels.

Peak THC levels are 162 ng/ml. The molecular weight of THC is 314g/mol. 314 ng of THC in 1 ml of plasma corresponds to a 1 μM THC concentration. Therefore, our measured concentration of 162 ng/ml corresponds to 520 nM THC at peak. After 30 minutes, ~20% or ~100 nM is still bioavailable. After 2 hours, ~3% or 15 nM of THC is still bioavailable.

With relative affinities for THC of 10 nM and 24 nM for CB1 and CB2 receptors it can be assumed that most biological activity of THC will have disappeared within 2 hours after smoking a cannabis cigarette (An affinity of 10 nM means that at this concentration 50% of receptors are bound/activated by THC).

Huestis, M.A. (2007). Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics. Chem. Biodivers. 4, 1770—1804.
Karschner, E.L., Darwin, W.D., Goodwin, R.S., Wright, S., and Huestis, M.A. (2011). Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration. Clin. Chem. 57, 66—75.
Mato, S., Del Olmo, E., and Pazos, A. (2003). Ontogenetic development of cannabinoid receptor expression and signal transduction functionality in the human brain. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 1747—1754.
McGilveray, I.J. (2005). Pharmacokinetics of cannabinoids. Pain Res. Manag. J. Can. Pain Soc. J. Société Can. Pour Trait. Douleur 10 Suppl A, 15A — 22A.

Full article: Cannabinoids in Your Body

Author: Uncredited
Visuals: Uncredited
Website: GHMedical


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This is exactly what i needed. Thank you so much Sue :thanks: I shall be studying this over and over. You're a legend...
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