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The History Of Hashish

Smokin Moose

Fallen Cannabis Warrior
6000 B.C. - Cannabis seeds used for food in China

2000 B.C. - 1400 B.C. Cannabis mentioned in the Atharvaveda (Science of Charms) as "sacred grass". Refered to as bhang or bhanga. The legend of Shiva, Lord of Bhang.

1500 B.C. Cannabis cultivated in China for food and fiber, but not hashish

1500 B.C. Scythians cultivate Cannabis and weave fine hemp cloth from it. (Sumach 1975)

700 B.C. - 600 B.C. The Zoroastrian Zend-Avesta, an ancient Persian religious text of several hundred volumes, and said to have been written by Zarathustra (Zoroaster), refers to bhang as Zoroaster's "good narcotic" (Vendidad or The Law Against Demons) (link to zoroaster evidence? texts?)

700 B.C. - 300 B.C. Scythian tribes leave Cannabis seeds as offerings in royal tombs

500 B.C. Scythian couple die and are buried (at grave site in Pazryk, nothwest of the Tien Shan Mountains in modern-day Khazakstan) with two small tents covering censors. Attached to one tent stick was a decorated leather pouch containing wild Cannabis seeds. Unknown whether this was for purely ritual or also intoxicating use of Cannabis.

430 B.C. Herodotus reports on both ritual and recreation use of Cannabis by the Scythians (Herodotus The Histories 430 B.C. trans. G. Rawlinson)

100 B.C. - 0 A.D. The Pen Ts'ao mentions Cannabis for medical use

0 A.D. - 100 A.D. Construction of Samartian gold and glass paste stash box for storing hashish, coriander, or salt, buried in Siberian tomb

70 A.D. Dioscorides mentions the use of Cannabis as a medicament (Roman)

170 A.D. Galen alludes to the psychoactiity of Cannabis seed confections (Roman)

500 A.D. - 600 A.D. The Jewish Talmud mentions the euphoriant properties of Cannabis (Abel 1980)

900 A.D. - 1000 A.D. Scholars debate the pros and cons of eating hashish. Use spreads throughout Arabia

1090 A.D. - 1256 A.D. In Khorasan, Persia, Hasan ibn al-Sabbah, the Old Man of the Mountain, recruits followers to commit assassinations...legends develop around their supposed use of hashish. These legends are some of the earliest written tales of the discovery of the inebriating powers of Cannabis and the supposed use of Hashish. 1256 Alamut falls

1155 A.D. - 1221 A.D. Persian legend of the Sufi master Sheik Haidar's of Khorasan's personal discovery of Cannabis and it's subsequent spread to Iraq, Bahrain, Egypt and Syria. Another of the ealiest written narratives of the use of Cannabis as an inebriant.

Early 12th Century Hashish smoking very popular throughout the Middle East.

12th Century A.D. Cannabis introduced in Egypt during the reign of the Ayyubid dynasty on the occasion of the flooding of Egypt by mystic devotees coming from Syria (M.K. Hussein 1957 - Soueif 1972)

1231 A.D. Hashish introduced to Iraq in the reign of Caliph Mustansir (Rosenthal 1971)

1271 A.D. -1295 A.D. Journeys of Marco Polo in which he gives second-hand reports of the story of Hasan ibn al-Sabbah and his "assassins" using hashish.

13th Century A.D. The oldest monograph on hashish, Zahr al-'arish fi tahrim al-hashish, was written. It has since been lost.

13th Century A.D. Ibn al-Baytar of Spain provides a description of psychaoctive Cannabis

1378 A.D. Ottoman Emir Soudoun Scheikhouni issues one of the first edicts against the eating of hashish.

1526 A.D. Babur Nama, first emperor and founder of Mughal Empire learned of hashish in Afghanistan.

mid 16th Century A.D. The epic poem, Benk u Bode, by the poet Mohammed Ebn Soleiman Foruli of Baghdad, deals allegorically with a dialectical battle between wine and hashish.

17th Century A.D. Use of hashish, alcohol, and opium spreads among the population of occupied Constantinopl3

Late 17th Century A.D. Hashish becomes a major trade item between Central Asia and South Asia

1798 Napoleon discovers that much of the Egyptian lower class habitually uses hashish (Kimmens 1977). He declares a total prohibition. Soldiers returning to France bring the tradition with them.

19th Century A.D. Hashish production expands from Russian Turkestan into Yarkand in Chinese Turkestan

1809 Antoine Sylvestre de Sacy, a leading Arabist, reveals the etymology of the words "assassin" and "hashishin"

1840 In America, medicinal preparations with a Cannabis base are available. Hashish available in Persian pharmacies.

1843 Le Club des Hachichins, or Hashish Eater's Club, established in Paris
after 1850 Hashish appears in Greece

1856 British tax ganja and charas trade in India

c 1875 Cultivation for hashish introduced to Greece

1870 - 1880 First reports of hashish smoking on Greek mainland

1877 Kerr reports on Indian ganja and charas trade.

1890 Greek Department of Interior prohibits importance, cultivation and use of hashish.

since 1890 Hashish made illegal in Turkey

1893-1894 The India Hemp Drugs Commission Report is issued.

1893-1894 70,000 to 80,000 kg of hashish legally imported into India from Central Asia each year.

Early 20th Century Hashish smoking very popular throughout the Middle East.

1920 Metaxus dictators in Greece crack down on hashish smoking.

1920s Hashish smuggled into Egypt from Greece, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, and Central Asia

1926 Lebanese hashish production peaks after World War I until prohibited in 1926

1920's - 1930s High-quality hashish produced in Turkey near Greek border

1930 Yarkand region of Chinese Turkestan exports 91,471 kg of hashish legally into the Northwest Frontier and Punjab regions of India

1930s Legal taxed imports of hashish continue into India from Central Asia

1934-1935 Chinese government moves to end all Cannabis cultivation in Yarkand and charas traffic from Yarkand. Both licit and illicit hashish production become illegal in Chinese Turkestan.

1938 Supply of hashish from chinese Turkestan nearly ceases.

1940s Greek hashish smoking tradition fades.

1941 Indian government considers cultivation in Kashmir to fill void of hashish from Chinese Turkestan

1941-1942 Hand-rubbed charas from Nepal is choicest hashish in India during World War II

1945 Legal hashish consumption continues in India

1945-1955 Hashish use in Greece flourishes again

1950s Hashish still smuggled into India from Chinese Central Asia

1950s Moroccan government tacitly allows kif cultivation in Rif Mountains

1966 The Moroccan government attempts to purge kif growers from Rif Mountains

1962 First hashish made in Morocco

1963 Turkish police seize 2.5 tons of hashish

1965 First reports of C. afghanica use for hashish production in northern Afghanistan

1965 Mustafa comes to Ketama in Morocco to make hashish from local kif

1967 "Smash", the first hashish oil appears. Red Lebanese reaches California.

late 1960s and early 1970s The Brotherhood popularizes Afghani hashish.

early 1970s Lebanese red and blonde hashish of very high-quality exported. The highest quality Turkish hashish from Gaziantep near Syria appears in western Europe.

early 1970s Afghani hashish varieties introduced to North America for sinsemilla production. Westerners bring metal sieve cloths to Afghanistan. Law enforcement efforts against hashish begin in Afghanistan

1970 - 1973 Huge fields of Cannabis cultivated for hashish production in Afghanistan. Last years that truly great Afghani hashish is available

1973 Nepal bans the Cannabis shops and charas export

1973 Afghan government makes hashish production and sales illegal. Afghani harvest is pitifully small.

1976-1977 Quality of Lebanese hashish reaches zenith

1978 Westerners make sieved hashish in Nepal from wild Cannabis

late 1970s Increasing manufacture of "modern" Afghani hashish. Cannabis varieties from Afghanistan imported into Kashmir for sieved hashish production.

early 1980s Quality of Lebanese hashish declines

1980s Morocco becomes one of, if not the largest, hashish producing and exporting nations

1980s "border" hashish produced in northwestern Pakistan along the Afghan border to avoid Soviet-Afghan war

1983-1984 Small amounts of the last high-uality Turkish hashish appear.

1985 Hashish still produced by Muslims of Kashgar and Yarkland

1986 Most private stashes of pre-war Afghani hashish in Amsterdam, Goa, and America are nearly finished.

1987 Moroccan government cracks down upon Cannabis cultivation in lower eleations of Rif Mountains

1993 Eradication efforts resume in Morocco

1994 Heavy fighting between rival Muslim clans continues to upset hashish trade in Afghanistan

1994 Border hashish still produced in Pakistan

1995 Introduction of hashish-making equipment and appearance of locally produced hashish in Amsterdam coffee shops.
 
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