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What Is The Natural Ligand Of GPR55

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GPR55 is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor and was originally identified as a putative third cannabinoid receptor. Recently, lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was reported to be a GPR55 ligand. Stimulation of GPR55 by LPI activates G12/13 and Gq/11 proteins, induces phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and increases intracellular calcium concentration. Lysophospholipids are molecularly quite diverse across species and tissues. A recent report showed that the predominant fatty acyl moiety of LPI in rat brain is stearic acid followed by arachidonic acid. The biological activity of arachidonic acid-containing LPI species towards GPR55 was shown to be markedly higher than that of LPI species containing other fatty acyl groups, suggesting that 2-arachidonolyl LPI is the most likely natural ligand of GPR55.

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